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Title: Livelihood assets and enabling factors contributing to sustainable alternative farming in highland of Na Noi district, Nan province
Other Titles: ทุนในการดำรงชีพและปัจจัยที่สนับสนุนการทำเกษตรทางเลือกที่ยั่งยืนบนพื้นที่สูงในอำเภอนาน้อย จังหวัดน่าน
Authors: Priyanud Chuensin
Authors: Budsara Limnirankul
Chanchai Sangchyoswat
Prathanthip Kramol
Priyanud Chuensin
Issue Date: May-2021
Publisher: Chiang Mai : Graduate School, Chiang Mai University
Abstract: Farmer in Na Noi district, Nan province has been practiced monoculture since 1993. Farmers have expanded planted area in the forest area. It reflected to their economy, which relied on a few crops, especially maize and rubber tree. Farmers needed less farm management. Current situation showed that, sustainability of farmer livelihood due to rely on external farm output. Although, they have worried about low soil fertility, soil erosion, and health risk from agrochemical. The objectives are 1) to classify farming typology and explore its’ livelihood assets on the highland in Na Noi district, Nan province, 2) to identify enabling factors of alternative farming adoption on the highland of Na Noi district, Nan province, and 3) to assess sustainable alternative farming on the highland of Na Noi district, Nan province. The research methods applied both qualitative and quantitative. First, key informant interviewing to understand society, economy, and natural resources. Using these sets of data to design questionnaires. Sustainable livelihood assets framework applied into study. Next, focus group discussion worked with farmers of seven sub-districts to make a rich picture of alternative farming. Taro (Yamane, 1973) defined the amount of sample, which included 222 samples. The household samples who do alternative farming on the highland of Na Noi district, Nan province for 2015-2018 years. There covered vulnerability, livelihood assets (human assets, social assets, financial assets, physical assets, and natural assets), transformation structure and process, livelihood strategies and livelihood outcome. The theory of change also used to identify the enabling factors of starting the alternative farming on the highland of Na Noi district, Nan province . Finally, farm sustainability assessed by sustainable development framework, which involved the human, economy, and environment. This research found that, farmers reduced maize farming system on the highland into three alternative farm types as follows, 1) maize and rubber tree were the commercial farm (56 households), 2) maize, rubber tree and integrated farming which were the part-commercial farm (153 households), and 3) part-commercial farm which is integrated farming (13 households). Comparing their livelihood assets described problems and empowerment of farmers to adopt different farm types. Firstly, farmers have well accessibility of natural assets. But secondly, farmers of the part-commercial farm (T2, T3) have better human assets than commercial farm (T1). Thirdly, the livelihood assets needed to push better reaching for three farm types such as the physical assets because their infrastructures did not facilitate them to manage alternative farm. Moreover, internet should available to access consumer and online market. Fourthly, the financial assets also the most deserve to provide them because they have low accessibility of revolving fund and got less supporting of substitution inputs. Finally, they also have low social assets contribution, especially farmer associations in agriculture because they did not get the benefit and involved farmer group. Meanwhile, data analysis of theory of change showed enabling factors to start alternative farming system on the highland. Six enabling factors included 1) policy of sustainable agriculture, 2) check chemical blood test to make awareness, 3) role models and community leaders, 4) irrigation system, 5) farmer groups, and 6) alternative market. Meanwhile, most factors affecting to adopt alternative farming system, which was economic factors. Economic factors included high farm income, low investment, and health from having own household food. This may useful to guideline associated organization in the area for promoting and enabling farmer to adopt in alternative farming. Moreover, the study of sustainability found that, they have different levels of sustainability, which practices in three alternative farming system showed the highest social sustainability. Next, the environment and economy are respectively. However, the sustainability of profitability is important to continuously reduce maize planted area on the highland of Na Noi district, Nan province. Therefore, it is importance to stimulate related farmers while, promoting sustainable practices on the highland. To make sure that farmers will continuously to sustainable practices.
Appears in Collections:AGRI: Theses

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