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Title: การสกัดซาโพนินจากเปลือกไม้สมุนไพรนมนาง (Pouteria cambodiana) และฤทธิ์ในการยับยั้งกิจกรรมของเอนไซม์ไลเปสและกลูโคซิเดส
Other Titles: Saponin extraction from pouteria cambodiana bark and inhibitory activities effect on lipase and glucosidase
Authors: กวิสรา แสนเหนือ
Authors: จุฬาลักษณ์ เขมาชีวะกุล
กวิสรา แสนเหนือ
Issue Date: Dec-2023
Publisher: เชียงใหม่ : บัณฑิตวิทยาลัย มหาวิทยาลัยเชียงใหม่
Abstract: Pouteria cambodiana or “Nom-nang” is a perennial plant that has a wide distribution in tropical regions and the northern region of Thailand. The bark of this plant has been used for the purpose of promoting lactation among breastfeeding mothers. Moreover, P. cambodiana bark has a high nutraceutical potential due to the presence of saponins, which are secondary metabolites. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal conditions for ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of saponins from the bark of P. cambodiana and to assess the in vitro inhibitory activities of saponin-rich extracts. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) to obtain high of saponins content. The impact of various extraction temperatures (40, 50, and 60 °C) and ethanol concentration levels (50, 60, and 70%) on the saponin compound was assessed. The most effective extraction conditions involved a temperature of 50°C and a 50% concentration level of ethanol as the solvent, which allowed the extraction of saponin content and total phenolic compounds, which were 36.04 ± 0.15 mg/g and 314.70 ± 0.55 mg GAE/g sample, respectively. The maximum antioxidant activity by DPPH was 1224.73 ± 21.01 and FRAP was 521.86 ± 4.65 mg Trolox/g sample, respectively. Saponin that has been hydrolyzed by acid is converted into sapogenin. Saponin-rich extracts and their hydrolysates from P. cambodiana bark were evaluated for their ability to inhibits alpha-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase activities. The study found that the saponin-rich extracts ability to inhibits α-glucosidase displayed the lowest IC50 value of 0.10 ± 0.01 mg/mL, when compared to the IC50 values of the sapogenin-rich extracts (2.98 ± 0.33 mg/mL) and acarbose (0.15 ± 0.01 mg/mL). In the case of pancreatic lipase, the findings indicated that the inhibitory effects of the sapogenin-rich extracts demonstrated an IC50 value of 7.60 ± 0.01 mg/mL, which was significantly lower compared to the saponin-rich extracts (>1000 mg/mL), while Oristat standard had the lowest IC50 value of 2.36 mg/mL. According to the results of the study on the stability of the saponin-rich extract powder transferred to aluminum foil bags and subsequently sealed under vacuum conditions prior to being stored at controlled temperatures at 25, 35, and 45 ˚C for 3 months, both chemical and physical alterations were discovered. It is affected by temperature under different circumstances. The results of this study found that the amount of saponin remaining was 7.29 ± 0.06 mg/g decrease to 70% and the total phenolic compounds remaining was 202.06 ± 0.72 mg GAE/g sample decrease to 80%, respectively. Furthermore, the antioxidation activity of DPPH and FRAP decreased similarly. The DPPH and FRAP exhibited the greatest decrease, resulting in values of 120.38 ± 2.53 decrease to 45%, and FRAP was 79.48 ± 1.56 mg Trolox/g sample decrease to 60%, respectively. For the change in moisture content and water activity values was found that the moisture content was 5.26 - 7.68% and water activity was 0.4, respectively. In terms of colour values, it was discovered that there was a minor rise in trend during the 3 months of storage. L*, a*, and b* values ranging from 79.00±0.88, 7.99 ±0.18, and 14.65± 0.18, respectively. The saponin contents of dried extract stored at a low temperature of 25 °C for 2 months showed the best stability, with saponin content more than 90% retention. In vitro cytotoxicity study of the extract saponin powder was tested to L929 fibroblast cell lines to determine the concentration that causes cytotoxicity. The IC50 value of 37.5 µg/mL. The cell survival value is greater than 80% (89.15%), indicating that the saponin powder extract is lowest toxic tested to L929 fibroblast cell lines. As a result, the herbal bark of Nom Nang can be further developed into functional food products to increase the benefits and value of the products.
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