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Title: Development of Multiplex PCR Method for Identification of Mosquitoes in the Barbirostris and Subpictus Complexes in Thailand
Other Titles: การพัฒนาวิธี Multiplex PCR เพื่อการจำแนกชนิดยุงในกลุ่ม Barbirostris และ Subpictus Complexes ในประเทศไทย
Authors: Parinya Wilai
Authors: Pradya Somboon
Anuluck Junkum
Atiporn Saeung
Parinya Wilai
Keywords: Multiplex PCR
Issue Date: Nov-2020
Publisher: เชียงใหม่ : บัณฑิตวิทยาลัย มหาวิทยาลัยเชียงใหม่
Abstract: A multiplex PCR assay based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences was developed for identification of five members of the Barbirostris Complex which occur in Thailand: Anopheles barbirostris s.s., An. dissidens, An. saeungae, An. wejchoochotei and An. barbirostris species A3. Anopheles campestris was not included in the assay due to the lack of unequivocal sequences. Allele-specific primers were designed for specific nucleotide segments of COI sequences of each species. Mismatch method and addition of long GC tail were applied for some primers. The assay provided products of 706 bp for An. barbirostris s.s., 238 bp for An. dissidens, 611 bp for An. saeungae, 502 bp for An. wejchoochotei and 365 bp for An. barbirostris A3. The assay was tested using 111 wild-caught female mosquitoes from Bhutan, Cambodia, Indonesia (Sulawesi) and Thailand. The results of the multiplex PCR were in complete agreement with COI sequencing; however, one of three specimens from Bhutan and all 11 specimens from Indonesia were not amplifiable by the assay due to their distinct COI sequences. This, together with the distinct rDNA sequences of these specimens, suggests the presence of at least two additional new species in the Barbirostris Complex. The Anopheles subpictus complex consists of four species informally designated, based on fixed inversions of polytene chromosomes and morphology, as species A, B, C and D in India. However, recent studies revealed the presence of only species A and B in Sri Lanka. Little is known about the specific identity of the taxon in other countries in Asia. This paper reports the results of a molecular and morphological study of An. subpictus in Thailand and South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The maxillary palpi of most females from Thailand have the apical pale band longer than the subapical dark band, seta 7-I of pupae branched and short, and eggs with 18-25 float ridges. These characters do not agree with those described for species A, B, C and D in India. The females of An. subpictus from South Sulawesi usually have the subapical dark band of the maxillary palpus equal in length to the apical pale band. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of rDNA and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene of mtDNA of specimens from Thailand, and South Sulawesi, and from various localities in GenBank, were conducted. ITS2 sequences of specimens from all localities in Thailand were identical, except for a small divergence in specimen from Phang Nga Province. Three distinct COI clades were detected in specimens from Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand. However, crossing experiments between the three clades revealed no genetic incompatibility, suggesting that they were conspecific. ITS2 and COI sequences of most specimens from Thailand fell in clades other than those of An. subpictus species A and B and An. subpictus from Indonesia (East Nusa Tenggara, Java, South Sulawesi) and the Philippines. ITS2 sequences from South Sulawesi and East Nusa Tenggara were very similar, and fell in a clade consisting of specimen from Phang Nga in southern Thailand and sequences of some specimens from Cambodia and Vietnam, but their COI sequences were distinct. DNA sequences and morphological differences suggest the presence of two species within An. subpictus in Thailand, and more than one species in Indonesia. Since, COI gene of An. subpictus from Thailand are divided into 3 groups (Clades). The multiplex PCR assay based on COI sequences was developed for identification of this Subpictus Complex. The Allele-specific primers were designed for identification of each species. The assay provided products of 630 bp, 359 bp and 187 bp for An. subpictus group 1 (Clade C), 2 (Clade D) and 3 (Clade E) respectively. This method is simple, fast and cheap compared with DNA sequencing. Further study, this method should be verified with more samples.
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