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dc.contributor.authorYaoprapa Yunen_US
dc.contributor.authorSupaphen Sripiboonen_US
dc.contributor.authorKidsadagon Pringproaen_US
dc.contributor.authorPhongsakorn Chuammitrien_US
dc.contributor.authorVeerasak Punyapornwithayaen_US
dc.contributor.authorKhajohnpat Boonpraserten_US
dc.contributor.authorPallop Tankaewen_US
dc.contributor.authorTaweepoke Angkawanishen_US
dc.contributor.authorKittikul Namwongpromen_US
dc.contributor.authorOrapun Arjkumpaen_US
dc.contributor.authorJanine L. Brownen_US
dc.contributor.authorChatchote Thitaramen_US
dc.description.abstractBackground: Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus causes a hemorrhagic disease (EEHV-HD) that is a major cause of death in juvenile Asian elephants with EEHV1 and EEHV4 being the most prevalent. Aim: To perform a retrospective clinical data analysis. Methods: Records of a total of 103 cases in Thailand confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on blood and/or tissue samples. Results: The severity of clinical signs varied among EEHV subtypes. EEHV1A was the most prevalent with 58%, followed by EEHV4 with 34%, EEHV1B with 5.8% and EEHV1&4 co-infection with 1.9%. Overall case fatality rate was 66%. When compared among subtypes, 100% case fatality rate was associated with EEHV1&4 co-infection, 83% with EEHV1B, 75% with EEHV1A, and the lowest at 40% for EEHV4. Calves 2- to 4-year old were in the highest age risk group and exhibited more severe clinical signs with the highest mortality. Majority of cases were found in weaned or trained claves and higher number of cases were observed in rainy season. A gender predilection could not be demonstrated. Severely affected elephants presented with thrombocytopenia, depletion of monocytes, lymphocytes and heterophils, a monocyte:heterophil (M:H) ratio lower than 2.37, hypoproteinemia (both albumin and globulin), severe grade of heterophil toxicity, and low red blood cell counts and pack cell volumes. Survival was not affected by antiviral drug treatment in the severely compromised animals. Conclusion: Early detection by laboratory testing and aggressive application of therapies comprising of supportive and anti-viral treatment can improve survival outcomes of this disease.en_US
dc.titleClinical characteristics of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) cases in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Thailand during 2006–2019en_US
article.title.sourcetitleVeterinary Quarterlyen_US
article.volume41en_US University, Kamphaeng Saen Campusen_US Forest Industry Organizationen_US and Research Center (National Zoo)en_US Mai Universityen_US Nakhon Si Ayutthaya Provincial Livestock Officeen_US
Appears in Collections:CMUL: Journal Articles

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