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|Title:||Conventional and molecular pharmacognostic characters integrated with chemical profiles of five Piper plants in the Thai herbal pharmacopoeia and their admixture/adulteration/substitution situations in Thailand|
|Keywords:||Chemistry;Medicine;Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics;Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology|
|Abstract:||The morphological and microscopy were combined with DNA-barcoding, together with rapid TLC for the characterization of Piper betle (PB), P. nigrum (PN), P. retrofractum (PR), P. sarmentosum (PS), and P. wallichii (PW), five medicinal Piper plants announced in the Thai Herbal Pharmacopoeia (THP). The authentic plants collected from various locations and voucher Piper products bought from commercial sites in Thailand were studied. The reproductive parts of authentic plants were subjected to ensure their morphological characters. Using sequencing analysis and genetic divergence for analyzing discriminatory performance, ITS2 was selected from eight candidate DNA markers to authenticate the origin of Piper crude drugs together with microscopic and TLC profiles for examining their characters, admixtures, adulterants, and substituents. PB and PR exhibited unique characters of the species, with no admixture, adulteration, and substitution. PN showed no variable characters of morphology and genetics. However, the microscopy could illustrate some commercial products of PN sold in Thailand have been adulterated with rice starch and roasted rice. In the herbal trade, PS has been sold in the form of mixed leaf, root, and stem more than the isolated part, but there is no variable character of the species. PW has shown more than one character of species explained by microscopic, chemical components, and genetic data. In conclusion, the conventional and molecular pharmacognostic data combined with chemical profile of authentic five Piper plants could be applied to indicate the plant origin and clarify the situations of admixture, adulteration, and substitution of the commercial Piper products launched in Thailand. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]|
|Appears in Collections:||CMUL: Journal Articles|
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