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dc.contributor.authorChatchote Thitaramen_US
dc.contributor.authorPornsawan Pongsopawijiten_US
dc.contributor.authorNikorn Thongtipen_US
dc.contributor.authorTaweepoke Angkavanichen_US
dc.contributor.authorSarun Chansittivejen_US
dc.contributor.authorWaroot Wongkalasinen_US
dc.contributor.authorChalermchart Somgirden_US
dc.contributor.authorNiyada Suwankongen_US
dc.contributor.authorWorapat Prachsilpchaien_US
dc.contributor.authorKittiphat Suchiten_US
dc.contributor.authorBjarne Clausenen_US
dc.contributor.authorPinich Boonthongen_US
dc.contributor.authorKannika Nimtrakulen_US
dc.contributor.authorCharawee Niponkiten_US
dc.contributor.authorSomchai Siritepsongkloden_US
dc.contributor.authorRonnachit Roongsrien_US
dc.contributor.authorSittidet Mahasavankulen_US
dc.description.abstractA 32-year-old nulliparous female Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) showed signs of parturition 8 months later than predicted from the breeding records. However, while serosanguineous fluid, necrotic tissue and pieces of amnion were expelled, second-stage labor did not progress. Since the fetus was not found during an endoscopic examination of the vestibule, it was assumed that the elephant had calved unseen and she was returned to the forest to recuperate. Twelve months later, the elephant showed clear signs of second-stage labor accompanied by a bulge in the perineum and passage of keratinized nail through the vulva. A 35 cm episiotomy incision was made in the perineum just below the anus, via which chains were attached to the forelimbs of the fetus. Traction on the forelimbs alone proved insufficient to achieve delivery because the fetal head kept rotating and impacting in the pelvis. However, traction applied via a hook inserted behind the mandibular symphysis allowed the head to be elevated and extended, and the fetus to be delivered. The episiotomy wound was sutured in two layers and although the skin did not heal during primary closure it subsequently healed uneventfully by second intention. Retrospective evaluation of the elephant's serum progestagens profile demonstrated a fall to baseline at the suspected onset of parturition, supporting the supposition that the fetus was retained in the uterus for 12 months after parturition began. It is suggested that serum progestagens concentrations should be monitored regularly in mated elephant cows to verify the establishment of pregnancy and to better estimate the expected timing, and the onset of calving. © 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.en_US
dc.subjectAgricultural and Biological Sciencesen_US
dc.titleDystocia following prolonged retention of a dead fetus in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus)en_US
article.volume66en_US Mai Universityen_US Universityen_US Forest Industry Organizationen_US consultanten_US Park Organizationen_US Reintroduction Foundation under Her Royal Highnessen_US Elephant Campen_US
Appears in Collections:CMUL: Journal Articles

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